This guide have the potential to be very large so I will try to focus on the really important parts. Will at least try.
Types of mail (accounts)
This is the very start of it all, and can be a bit confusing since you might have all types of account on your phone all at once. I will not cover exchange accounts in this for various reasons, mostly that I don’t have such account myself.
Post Office Protocol (receiving part) / Simple Mail transfer (sending part), is the oldest type of mail that’s still around. This is the “normal” type of a mail account.
POP3: which is the server for incoming mail, this is the easy part get right as it’s normally just the server address of the POP3-server and your username and password.
SMTP: Simply address to the server that handles all your outgoing mail, with various security settings. You often need the same account settings as for POP3 to get it to work at all, and often you need to set port for it as well, which depends on the provider of the mail service.
Internet Message Access Protocol, development from the POP3 way of doing things, instead of downloading mail off the server you access it on a server . This way you can easily access the same mail from different devices, like a computer and phone and so on.
Service type mail
This covers most services like Gmail, Outlook.com (former Hotmail), Yahoo Mail and so on. Simply a web based service which you log onto and have access to your mail, it doesn’t in it’s purest form require anything else than a computer with internet access.
It’s easy to get an account, and many times you already have one since with android you need a google account for it to really work, and that account is your Gmail so if you just want a simple mail account: this is pretty much what you need. These type of accounts often include that you can use Push function with them.
With the Mail app in One (and similar phones) you can add all your accounts (including outlook.com and similar), but most of these type of services have their own apps which many times gives you full access and at times more features than to use the stock mail app for it.
So, what is PUSH Mail?
Push mail is simply that your incoming mail gets pushed to your device the second it reaches the mail server and not like POP/SMTP where the device checks for now mail every x amount of minutes. It gives you more or less real time access to your mail, but it also eats more battery so it simply depends on what’s important. This always requires a service to work, and is normally not a part of POP/SMTP or similar type of accounts.
So, how do I get Push for my mail?
The easy way is of course to get a mail service that got it already, like outlook.com or simply use the gmail account you created for your first android phone
But, I want to use my mail account for work with Push? How do I do that?
This is where it gets a little tricky and you need to “piggy-back” that account to a service that got Push already, like: gmail, outlook.com and so on. I will focus on gmail here since i’m mostly Android, and you can get to gmail from almost anywhere. Simply add the accounts to your gmail as in this guide, and you simple use it as normal in your phone or where you want it. This is a pretty handy way to have access to work mail and such, just make sure that you’re not breaking any security rules your workplace might have around mail while doing this.
But, Nokia/apple and such just gives me Push?
Not sure if nokia does that anymore though, but when such a thing is done on such a phone it’s always going through a service of kind. That is VERY similar to the google mail fetcher function, you just have to manually add your account to the google mail fetcher and you can access the mail from any internet connected computer.